Most scholars and policymakers agree that ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all is a prerequisite for achieving sustainable development. However, recent evidence shows that the world is falling short of sustainable energy goals and the problem is particularly acute in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Many governments in SSA are struggling with the interlinked nature of sustainable development and are increasingly facing challenges related to the environmental and social impacts of their energy policy decisions. How can governments promote policy coherence with the aim of integrating energy concerns with other sustainable development objectives? And how do citizens react to energy projects that risk disrupting local livelihoods and cause environmental destruction? With a focus on proposed coal power plants in Kenya and Malawi, this chapter examines how, and to what extent, domestic energy policies balance social, economic, and environmental objectives.