Alexander Dunlap and Martín Correa Arce: Pacifying autonomous land defenders in Oaxaca, Mexico: Human rights groups as social warfare mechanisms

Chapter in the book Environmental Defenders, 2021, Routledge

Cover of edited book


This chapter examines the struggle against the new Électricité de France (EDF) wind park, Gunaa Sicarú, in Unión Hidalgo (UH), Mexico. Foregrounding Indigenous land defense, the chapter refers to wind energy as ‘wind factories’ to discuss agrarian change in the region. Revealing the counterinsurgency colonial model as a foundational approach to extractive development, the chapter argues that the distribution of money, Sicarios (hitmen) and NGOs are instrumental to engineering ‘social acceptance’. Moreover, the liberalism underlining NGOs, if not careful, advances processes of infrastructural colonization and, consequently, wider trajectories of (neo)colonialism.

View the chapter on the publisher's website.


Alexander Dunlap and Martín Correa Arce

Postdoctoral Fellow Alexander Dunlap
Postdoctoral Fellow Alexander Dunlap


Published July 13, 2021 3:01 PM - Last modified July 13, 2021 3:01 PM