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MEATigation: Meat in Norwegian Food Practices: Eating

How to get Norway closer to reaching its mitigation goals through meat?

This project is part of the NTNU lead project MEATigation: Towards sustainable meat use in Norwegian food practices for climate mitigation.

About the project

MEATigation joins eleven researchers in Social Sciences Humanities and Arts with nine industry partners in food provision and sustainability communication to investigate a key challenge facing Norway’s transition to a low-emission society: transforming the food system.

A reduction in Western meat consumption is critical for global food security, respecting planetary boundaries and improving global health. However, even when positive to climate action, Europeans are reluctant to reduce their meat consumption, especially in the Nordic regions. This is because meat is not just calories: It is culture. Meat is deeply embedded in social practices that weave together meanings, identities and values; competences, skills and professions; materials, animals and landscapes that all go into making meat.


MEATigation’s primary objective is: To explore how meat is embedded in Norwegian food practices and to identify ways to promote sustainable meat-use in Norway.

In this part of the project, households are at the center, and we will examine how their food practices contribute to meat consumption, as well as how this is explained and/or justified by various actors. Furthermore, we will investigate which conditions facilitate or make it difficult to reduce meat consumption in Norwegian households.

For the Meatigation project as a whole, sustainability is articulated following the 3Rs of sustainable meat-use:

  • R1 Recognising the animals and people working to provide meat
  • R2 Replacing animal-based proteins with plant-based, insect-based or in-vitro alternatives
  • R3 Refining meat-use to match needs versus wants, reduce waste and malnutrition (e.g., obesity).

MEATigation investigates the 3Rs of sustainable meat-use through data collection with households, farms, retailers, restaurants, and via experimentation with dietary and art-based interventions.

MEATigation has three further secondary objectives, to:

  • Deliver sound and usable advice to decision-makers in government and industry on best practices for sustainable meat-use;
  • Stimulate public engagement with sustainability and meat, and a methodological meta-objective;
  • Pursue responsible research and innovation (RRI), engage private and public stakeholders to produce project outcomes.

Achieving these objectives will get Norway one step closer to reaching its 2030 mitigation goals through meat.


2020 –2024


The Research Council of Norway


NTNU, Universitetet i Oslo, Wageningen University, Leeds University, Maastricht University, Southampton University and LSE. 

Industry partners: MENY, Grønne Folk, Myrvangen Gård, Brattlia Økogård, Snerting Ranch, Stammen Café,  Folkekjøkken, Ducky, bioartists Cathrine Kramer and Zackery Denfeld and the pop group Chicks on Speed.


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  • Volden, Johannes (2022). Doing (food) without meat? The role of meat substitutes in the food practices of meat lovers, meat reducers, and meat avoiders .
  • Hansen, Arve (2022). (Un)sustainable consumption and everyday life.
  • Hansen, Arve (2022). The geographies of everyday meat consumption in Norway: Stubborn food practices and meat-intensive foodscapes.
  • Korsnes, Marius & Loeng, Martin (2022). How have animals become embedded in Norwegian foodways?
  • Efstathiou, Sophia & Papalexandri-Alexandri, Marianthi (2022). Sounding Secrets.
  • Efstathiou, Sophia (2022). Meat without meat: The found science of meat and contemporary vegan biotech .
  • Efstathiou, Sophia (2022). Interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity in action.
  • Efstathiou, Sophia (2022). Considering meat replacements as drag.
  • Efstathiou, Sophia (2022). Meat we don't greet: How industrialisation facilitates the end of meat.
  • Efstathiou, Sophia & Loeng, Martin (2022). MEATigation presents: Eat Like your Grandparents -Reducing meat the old way.
  • Efstathiou, Sophia (2022). The found science of meat alternatives-How food biotech is creating new meat concepts .
  • Hansen, Arve; Korsnes, Marius; Sundet, Øyvind; Volden, Johannes R. & Wethal, Ulrikke Bryn (2021). Kjøttkutt krever politisk styring! Klassekampen. ISSN 0805-3839.
  • Hansen, Arve; Korsnes, Marius; Sundet, Øyvind; Volden, Johannes R. & Wethal, Ulrikke Bryn (2021). Holdningsendring alene gir ikke kjøttkutt. SUM-bloggen.
  • Volden, Johannes R. (2021). Mat, helse og bærekraft: Hvilken rolle spiller mat for bærekraftig utvikling? Mat og helse i skolen. ISSN 1890-3193. p. 28–34.
  • Efstathiou, Sophia (2021). UPCYCLED Cookbook -Having a brainstorm.
  • Efstathiou, Sophia (2021). WP1: Founding meat in Norwegian food practices – Challenges and Proud Moments.
  • Efstathiou, Sophia (2021). Meat we don’t greet.
  • Volden, Johannes Rudjord (2021). The quest for sustainable protein: Introduction. Matlære.
  • Volden, Johannes (2021). The quest for sustainable protein: Meat from plants? Matlære.
  • Korsnes, Marius (2021). Matters of Concern in the Norwegian Sustainability Transition.
  • Efstathiou, Sophia (2021). Tavros – On animal resistance.
  • Efstathiou, Sophia (2021). Meat we don’t greet: How ‘sausages’ can save pigs or how effacing livestock makes room for emancipation.
  • Efstathiou, Sophia (2021). Meat we don't Greet: How ‘sausages’ can save pigs or how effacing livestock makes room for emancipation.
  • Efstathiou, Sophia (2021). Design and Technologies of Effacement.
  • Efstathiou, Sophia (2021). Technologies of Effacement in Meat Production.
  • Efstathiou, Sophia; Murray-Leslie, Alexandra Nicki; Duch, Michael Francis; Logan, Melissa. E. & Ocher, Mary (2021). Meet me over Meat.
  • Efstathiou, Sophia & Engvik, Inga Vinje (2021). «Misbruk av dyr er noe som i stor grad tas for gitt og ikke stilles spørsmål ved». [Journal]. Kultur Plot .
  • Efstathiou, Sophia (2020). Meat without meat.
  • Efstathiou, Sophia & Stubberud, Elisabeth (2020). WP1: Founding meat in Norwegian food practices.
  • Efstathiou, Sophia (2020). Responding to challenge-driven calls as humanists- Experiences with MEATigation.
  • Dumitriu, Anna; Musiol, Hanna; Hessler, Stefanie; Muenster, Ursula; Jørgensen, Dolly & Efstathiou, Sophia [Show all 7 contributors for this article] (2020). “BioArt, Research, and the Pandemic: Uncertain Histories and Unstable Futures in the Art of Anna Dumitriu,” a conversation with Anna Dumitriu and guests. NTNU ARTEC Seminar Series.
  • Efstathiou, Sophia (2020). Deep Playing: Art-based approaches to responsible research.
  • Efstathiou, Sophia (2013). Ideobics - Exercising in Ideas.

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Published Aug. 7, 2020 2:08 PM - Last modified May 19, 2021 1:26 PM